Design of Internal and External Component
Internal Development for Water Supply
consists of water supply fitting and fixtures in the house, water
supply service lines and pluming work.
• External Development for Sanitation consists of trunk sewers, pumping station and treatment plant.
• Partners: Urban Unit, WASA Lahore, ASB and UC 60.
A service reservoir, a storage
reservoir is a reservoir constructed as close to the consumption centre
as possible to take care of the daily fluctuation in demand.
• Transmission lines are pipes that transmit raw water from source to treatment plant and treated water from treatment plants and pumping station to service provider and distribution network. The diameter is > 400mm.
• Distribution mains are pipes that carry water from transmission mains and service reservoir, and distribute it to the community. They are along streets, have several side connections they are 100 or 150 mm, and larger.
Service Lines are small diameter
pipes (<100 mm) and carry water from distribution mains to the customer
• To provide water supply and sanitation services for 20,000 people in project area for 24/7 in phase -1
• To mobilization of the community for internal component sharing of the project
• To provide health , hygiene and environmental education for the community and related stakeholders
• To develop a partnership model for WASA in Punjab for replication in other part of province / WASA
• To carry out research on policy learning of urban integrated water and sanitation project in Punjab
The project is located in the poor peri Urban area of Lahore, with no provision of water supply and sewerage services in the area. The Project will have the following component as given below. The description of the project is mostly based on the design of the project by WASA, Urban Unit, ASB and UC-60. MOU was designed and agreed by all partners in which clear working relationship and terms of work is defined. Steering Committee is the institutional arrangement for Programme Detail Design, decision making and Implementation arrangement including conflict resolution.
Design of Water Supply and Sanitation Scheme based on Component Sharing (Internal and External Investment of Resources
The project engineering component is designed by the WASA-L based on an internal and external component model for water and sanitation. The internal and external component is defined in the MOU. In addition to that the project funding will provide the following components. WASA will be fully responsible for design, quality assurance and monitoring supported by Urban Unit.
Overhead Water Tank of 50,000 Gallons (External )
• One tube well of 4 cusecs with Bulk Meter
• 3000 smart consumers meters 15 mm with 1.5 m3/h nominal flow ( SM150VR)
• Laying of water supply line 6- 12” Dia (External component)
• Laying of water supply line 3” and 4” dia (Internal component)
• Laying of sewerage system 12” to 42” dia (External component)
• Laying of sewerage system 9” dia (Internal component)
• Laying of trunk sewer 48” dia from Charrar drain up to Mahoozpura( Main Component)
The major and strategic aspect of this project is mobilization of the communities including the women, man and elders for this project. In this regards a project office in the area will be established with key project staff. The community will be mobilize for the
Participation in the project
• Community awareness /education and finance of the internal component
The project staff keeping in view this aspect will be selected. The project staff will work overall guidance of the Steering Committee. ASB is responsible for the social mobilization. The communities will be mobilized on each lane or street.
Each street will form
its own water committee
• From each water committee a representative will be member of Mohalla Committee
• Each mohalla committee will nominate one president, Secretary and treasurer.
• In Each Mohalla Women water Groups will be formed and 2 members of women water group will be member of Mohalla committee
• President of Mohalla Committee will be the member of Changa Pani UC Development Committee which will be formed at the project level
• Women water groups will be representative in the Changa Pani UC Development Committee
Health, Hygiene and Conservation Education
A Research was conducted by the Urban Unit ( Hussainy 2007) in the project area. This research investigates the water and sanitation related health issues and behaviors in the poor urban locality of Lahore, Pakistan. In the sample population 73% population is illiterate. They have no access to government water supply and sanitation scheme. Poverty, illiteracy and absence of any health and hygiene programme have resulted in poor community health. 37 to 42 % adult and children from the sample were sick in last three month associated with water and sanitation diseases. 58% of the community was not satisfied with the quality of water, 73% never boiled the water and only 5 % knew the benefit of boiling water. The access to hygiene information is limited due to poverty, low literacy and low mobility. The only source of health and hygiene information is T.V and relatives which is always limited in scope.
The finding of this research concludes that there is association between community health, environment and health behavior. The gendered nature of health and hygiene issue clearly required a health and hygiene strategy which addresses women, their low literacy and means of communication to make an intervention of water and sanitation by WASA Lahore a success.
International experience also suggested provision of water and sanitation will not improve the community health and well being. There is a need of the health and hygiene programme as well as change of behavior of community for water use so they can conserve it. Keeping in view the research findings and the need of the project Health and Hygiene and Environmental Conservation Programme will be also included in the project.
The project will design and deliver the following
Environmental education conservation project
• Health and Hygiene Behavior Change Programme
The Programme will be designed with support from the Urban Unit and following key stakeholder will be involved and targeted
Women water groups
• Women at the household level
• Community including the Changa Pani Groups formed
All key of messages and interactive tools will be used. The educational programme will be beyond awareness but intend to change the knowledge, skills and attitude so the targeted group could take a social action for conservation of water. In this regards as the community educational level is low.
Policy Learning and Research
An office will be established at the project site for the purpose of community mobilization and education purpose. As this project aims to be developed as a policy learning model the documentation of the process, capacity building of the staff and WASA including partners are essential. This will help in the replication of the project in other parts of Punjab and else where in Pakistan.
Urban Unit has established the international networking with the VSO, an international Volunteering Organization who will provide international volunteer to work on this project. The international volunteer will document the process as well as introduce the international best practices.
International Networking is being established with the WSP- Pakistan who will facilitate the knowledge sharing for the best practice of the urban water and sanitation project in the region. The learning also involves an exposure visit to OPP-Project Karachi of the project staff, WASA and steering Committee members.
Another networking is being established with Freshwater Action Network. This is a global network of environmental and developmental Non-governmental and Community Based Organisations working to strengthen civil society's participation in international water policy formulation.
The Urban Unit and University of London will explore possibility of Masters Degree Research on Environmental Communication in the Project area with WSS specialist as researcher along with other research on water, health and hygiene and poverty.
Poverty and Vulnerable Group Support
Government of Punjab will
support 10% of the poorest household through a revolving fund for financing
the internal component which will be recoverable through water bills. 300
poorest, women headed, unemployed household below the extreme poverty line
will be supported through a fund which will be used by WASA for future Changa
Pani projects after recovery
The National Drinking Water Policy of Pakistan provides a framework for addressing the key issues and challenging facing Pakistan in the drinking water sector. The goals of the stated policy clearly articulated the need of ensuring the safe drinking water to the community and to ensure the reduction in the incidence of mortality and morbidity caused by water borne disease (EPA 2006).
The initial field survey in the area revealed that people in the area do not have any water supply and sanitation system. The disposal of the excreta is unsafe, people are poor, toilets are improper and the literacy is low in the area. The excreta are disposed off through excavating a small sanitation well. The community disposes of or discharges their sewage in these wells. Anecdotal evidence from the discussion with communities suggests that elders and children’s health is affected as the sewage water is mixed with the drinking water. The existing water supply is through instillation of small motor pumps to extract ground water (Urban Unit 2006).
A recommendation based on the field survey was presented to the Chairman, Planning and Development Board, Government of Punjab in October 2006. The recommendation by the Urban Unit was to design and implemented an integrated project for water supply and sanitation in the area with strong community participation and financing by the community for their internal component and WASA-L as external component.
Literature review and reading about the integrated approach to water and sanitation highlighted the importance of health and hygiene education (UNESCO 2006). Cairneross et. al. (2005) claimed that it is not enough to provide water supply and sanitation facilities to bring down the mortality and morbidity rates significantly, hygiene behavior has a greater impact on health. Similarly DeNormandle and Sunita (2002) concluded based on their work in India that widespread unhygienic practices during water collection and storage, poor hand washing, limited access to sanitation facilities perpetuate the transmission of diarrhea-causing germs through the faecal –oral route. There is an established link between the community health behavior, diseases and overall environment of the household and community which includes cleanliness, income level and their access to the knowledge and skills related to proper hygiene and awareness